Fish meal is a commercial product made from fish raw materials and species not usually not destined for human consumption, commonly used as farmed animal feed ingredient, mostly in aquaculture. Fishmeal is made from whole fish or side streams fractions, such as bones, skins, guts, and trimmings, from fisheries or aquaculture. Fish meal powder or cake are produced by cooking of the fish raw materials, separation of press cake and water/oil phases (stick water and fish oil), drying and dewatering of the different fractions and mixing back the dry fractions to a meal.
Amino acids are grouped according to their side chains. Those with hydrophobic side chains are glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), proline (Pro), phenylalanine (Phe), methionine (Met), and tryptophan (Trp). The hydrophobic side chains are composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen and tend to be repelled from water, which has implications for the proteins' tertiary structure
The characteristic fishy odour of fish products derives mainly due to the presence of trimethylamine (N(CH3)3; TMA). The oxidised form of TMA trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) is practically odourless.
- Ahuja, K., Mamtani, K., 2016. Grand View Research. Protein Ingredients Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report By Product [Plant (Wheat, Soy Protein Concentrates), Animal (Egg, Milk Protein Concentrates)], By Application, And Segment Forecast, 2018 - 2025.
- Association, E. W. P. The European Whey Protein Consumer Tracker 2017.
- Borderías, A.J., I. Sánchez-Alonso, and M. Pérez-Mateos. 2005. New applications of fibres in foods: Addition to fishery products. Trends in Food Science & Technology 16:458-465.
- Branciari, R., D. Ranucci, E. Urbani, A. Valiani, M. Trabalza-Marinucci, A. Dal Bosco, and R. Franceschini. 2017. Freshwater Fish Burgers Made from Four Different Fish Species as a Valuable Strategy Appreciated by Consumers for Introducing EPA and DHA into a Human Diet. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 26:686-694.
- Codex 2003. Code of practive for fish and fishery products. CAC/RCP 52-2003. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
- Danza, A., A. Conte, and M.A. Del Nobile. 2017. Technological options to control quality of fish burgers. Journal of Food Science and Technology 54:1802-1808.
- Esturk, O., J.W. Park, and S. Thawornchinsombut. 2004. Effects of thermal sensitivity of fish proteins from various species on rheological properties of gels. J Food Sci 69:E412-E416.
- EWP 2017a. European Whay Processors Association, The European Whey Protein Consumer Tracker 2017. (link)
- EWP 2017b.. European survey reveals increased demand and promising growth for whey protein. (link)
- Firmenich. Biomarine Science Symposium 2016.
- Kasapis, S. 2009. Developing Minced Fish Products of Improved Eating Quality: An Interplay of Instrumental and Sensory Texture. International Journal of Food Properties 12:11-26.
- Kose, S., M. Boran, and G. Boran. 2006. Storage properties of refrigerated whiting mince after mincing by three different methods. Food Chemistry 99:129-135.
- Kose, S., M.O. Balaban, M. Boran, and G. Boran. 2009. The effect of mincing method on the quality of refrigerated whiting burgers. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44:1649-1660.
- Kristinsson, H. G. & Rasco, B. A. Fish protein hydrolysates: Production, biochemical, and functional properties. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (2000). doi:10.1080/10408690091189266
- Lemon, P., Tarnopolsky, M., D MacDougall, J. & Atkinson, S. Protein requirements and muscle mass/strength changes during intensive training in novice bodybuilders. Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) 73, (1992).
- Li, Q., P. Gui, Z. Huang, L. Feng, and Y. Luo. 2017. Effect of transglutaminase on quality and gel properties of pork and fish mince mixtures. Journal of Texture Studies 49:56-64.
- Makri, M. 2012. Chemical Composition Physical and Sensory Properties of Fish Burgers Prepared from Minced Muscle of Farmed Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Using Various Types of Flour. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 11:3327-3333.
- OECD (2011), Health at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing. (link)
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Obesity Update 2017. OECD Heal. Stat. 1-7 (2017). doi:10.1787/888932523956
- Ozogul, Y., and Y. Ucar. 2013. The Effects of Natural Extracts on the Quality Changes of Frozen Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Burgers. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6:1550-1560.
- Randy, C., Bun Ng, T. & Wong, J. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications. Marine drugs 13, (2015).
- Salvador, A., T. Sanz, and S.M. Fiszman. 2005. Effect of the addition of different ingredients on the characteristics of a batter coating for fried seafood prepared without a pre-frying step. Food Hydrocolloids 19:703-708.
- Shaviklo, A.R., N. Moradinezhad, S.J. Abolghasemi, A. Motamedzadegan, N. Kamali-Damavandi, and F. Rafipour. 2016. Product Optimization of Fish Burger Containing Tuna Protein Isolates for Better Sensory Quality and Frozen Storage Stability. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 16:923-933.
- Vanitha, M., K. Dhanapal, and G.V.S. Reddy. 2015. Quality changes in fish burger from Catla (Catla Catla) during refrigerated storage. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore 52:1766-1771.
- Venkatesan, J., Anil, S., Kim, S. K. & Shim, M. S. Marine fish proteins and peptides for cosmeceuticals: A review. Marine Drugs (2017). doi:10.3390/md15050143
- Windsor, M. L. Fish protein concentrate. TORRY Advis. NOTE No. 39 (2001).